Examination of Black Entrepreneurs in Toronto, Canada: Critical Analysis of the Role of Financial Literacy

American entrepreneur Jim Rohn stated that “Formal education will make you a living; self-education will make you a fortune” 1. This research on lived experiences of Black businesses in Toronto has relied on self-education. Bogan and Darity (2008) argue that policymakers and scholars alike consider self-employment as an alternative to unemployment and a route out of poverty. This dissertation examines the historical and contemporary experiences faced by Black businesses in Canada, and in particular the Greater Toronto Area. In addition, this research examines the role of financial literacy education amongst the Black community. This dissertation argues that to understand the challenges within the Black business community, consideration of the complexities of Black identity, in antiquity and modernity, have shaped and influenced the Black narrative in not only stories of heroics and affirmation but betrayal, pain, and contestation, which has had a severe impact on economic prosperity within the Black community as a collective.

Year Published:



Sein Kipusi


Entrepreneurship, Financial Literacy

Related Resources

Skip to content